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2008. december 31., szerda

CRFF Newsletter 33

University of Sheffield

The Centre for Research into Freemasonry
Newsletter 33

No 33, December 2008
Lidingö outside Stockholm, New Years Eve 2008

Dear colleagues and friends,
We wish everybody a happy and creative New Year with many new interesting encounters and findings in our area of research. For technical reasons this newsletter will go out in plain text format, but it will also be available online on our website within a week.

1) ICHF 29-31 May 2009 Preliminary Programme and Registration out now!

With great satisfaction we want to notify that the preliminary programme and registration for the second International Conference in the History of
Freemasonry now is out. The pdf-file can be accessed via out website (“News and Events”, “Conferences”) where you also find further information on the conference organisers who certainly are happy to send you the brochures in hard copies if you would prefer this. The ICHF will provide a unique opportunity for international encounters between scholars in the area, regardless of background, and a larger public audience. 72 papers will be delivered over
three days in a city with a magnificent location and we hope to see many of you there.

2) Academic Society for Research into Freemasonry under formation

As reported in our last newsletter, we have taken the initiative to form an Academic Society for Research into Freemasonry and related organisations/currents of thought. Membership in the association is open to professional academics but also to corporate and associated members. With membership comes a reduction to the subscription for our new journal (see below). The formation of the society was officially announced in The Hague on 28 November 2008. Discussions on people involved in the leadership and the basis for the societies work has now started. You will find more information on our website under ASRFF.

3) Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism, report ahead of the deadline

Closely related to the establishment of the society is our work on the first issue of the Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism to be
published online and in hard copy in May 2009. The first issue has a thematic focus on freemasonry and fraternal organisations and their influence upon the formation of national identity. We have received a number of interesting contributions, in fact more than we will be able to publish, that now are out on peer review. Furthermore we are preparing a debate section of large importance for our understanding of freemasonry in the international context. Reviews of major academic works in the area have also been submitted. The
manuscripts are planned to be edited by the end of January 2009. For more information, see www.equinoxjournals.com/ojs/index.php/JRFF

A Call for the second issue due for November 2009 will follow in March.

4) Malcolm Davies installation as professor in the Chair of Freemasonry in Leiden 25 November 2008

In a solemn act of installation in the Auditorium of the University of Leiden/The Netherlands, professor Malcolm Davies presented his inaugural
lecture “Sons of Reason/Children of Light”. In his lecture, professor Davies elaborated upon the importance of a proper analysis of ideas and concepts as represented in masonic sources such as songbooks. By presenting quotations from these sources, professor Davies developed a fascinating panorama on Dutch freemasonry between Enlightenment and Romanticism, universalism and fragmentation. The lecture was followed by a reception kindly hosted by the Grand East of the Netherlands. A copy of the lecture can be obtained through m.g.davies@religion.leidenuniv.nl

5) Applicants workshop for HERA-program on Cultural Dynamics in The Hague 26 November 2008

12 applicants from 6 countries met for a preparatory workshop in The Hague/Netherlands to present potential topics for the upcoming preparation of an application to a large European funding cooperation named Humanities in the European Research Area. The working title of the application is “(COME) Culture of Mobility in Europe, European Mobility of Culture: Fraternal Organisations and their Roll as Cultural Mediators and Carrier-groups”. Minutes and other material from the meeting will be published soon on our website under HERA. To quote from the successful application for the networking grant: “Cultural dynamics can only be created by the mobility of its actors. Culture in European space is characterised by its transgressing qualities. The aim of our preparatory workshop is to discuss these two basic assumptions applied to an analysis of cultural carrier groups (freemasonry and other fraternal organisations) that act as mediators in a cultural transfer in Europe in a period of substantial change between the 18th and 19th centuries.”

6) New French dissertation on symbolism in higher degree French freemasonry defended in Nice

From Nice in France we have received information on the successful defence of another dissertation on freemasonry, co-supervised by Jean-Pierre Brach and Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire. The dissertation titled “Emprunts opératifs, religieux et ésotériques dans les rituels et l’iconographie des tableaux de loge des systèmes français à hauts grades au XVIIIe siècle: contribution à l’étude de la
construction de la tradition maçonnique” by Dr. Dominique Jardin was presented to a most illustrious jury on 23 October and we are very interested in to see it appear in print in due course.

7) Short report from the Second Symposium on the History of Freemasonry in Cuba and the Caribbean in December 2008 and announcement of the third symposium to be organised in Mexico in 2010

From Cuba, Central America and Spain we have received short reports on the second conference on the history of freemasonry in Cuba and the Caribbean that took place in La Habana in the first week of December 2008. We hope that we will be able to send a more detailed account on the event in our next newsletter. For now we just want to notify the formation of a “Centro
 de Estudios Históricos de la Masonería Latinoamericana y Caribeña (CEHMLAC)”. The center will have a website and 
eventually a magazine. The next symposium will be held in Mexico in 2010.

8) Report from the Conference “The Expression of Freemasonry” 27-28 November 2008 in The Hague by Dr. Robert Collis

Organised by Professor Malcolm Davis and the University of Leiden Venue: The International School of The Hague (The Hague) Thursday 27th-Friday 28th November 2008

On a chilly, late autumnal morning a healthy mix of academics and freemasons gathered to attend “The Expression of Freemasonry” conference organised by Professor Malcolm Davis, the newly installed Chair for the Study of Freemasonry at the University of Leiden. The opening addresses, which were positive and open-minded, set the mood for the whole conference. After a welcoming talk by Peter Kotrc, the Principal of the International School of the Hague, Diederik van Rossum, the Grand Master of the Grand East of the Netherlands, addressed the audience. The main theme of this address was the need for the Masonic community to engage in rigorous dialogue with the academic community in order for the brotherhood to assess its rich past and to be able to meet the new demands of the twenty-first century. He emphasised European cooperation as the way forward. This sentiment is strongly endorsed by the CRFF.
The theme of the first day of the conference was Freemasonry: Art and Theatre, and proceedings began with a keynote speech by Professor James Stevens Curl. The choice to begin the conference with an address from Professor Curl was a shrewd move as he spoke with verve and erudition about the various Masonic stage-sets used in productions of Mozarts Die Zauberflöte. The second paper of the morning session was presented by Professor Jeffrey Thyssens, who spoke about the cultural-historical importance of Masonic tombstones. While principally focussing on tombstones in Belgium, Professor Thyssens outlined an analytical perspective that can be applied by other scholars in different contexts. Leonard H. Lubitz gave the last lecture of the morning session. He spoke with enthusiasm about the apparently abundant Masonic symbolism visible
in a whole host of American cities.
The afternoon session began with a keynote speech by Dr. Andrew Pink on the interesting topic of freemasons in early eighteenth-century London theatres. He expertly outlined the tradition of Masonic theatre visits in the first half of the eighteenth-century. Moreover, he placed these visits (that incorporated grand processions along the Strand) within the wider context of British politics, thereby illustrating the mixed feelings they engendered. The second paper of the afternoon session, by Pauline van den Heuvel, examined the complex relationship between performing arts and freemasonry in Amsterdam between 795-1844. Through Ms van den Heuvel’s astute analysis it soon became apparent that performing artists in Amsterdam in this period were attracted to freemasonry for a variety of reasons. Furthermore, it was intriguing to learn that artists initiated into lodges soon left to form their own fraternal society, entitled VW, before some later returned to the fold in later life. As a footnote it might be of interest that such fraternities for performers of aesthetic professions also were formed in other European countries such as Par Bricole in Sweden (founded in 1779 by the famous Swedish singer-songwriter Carl Michael Bellman). Naturally the interest of CRFF was caught by this presentation, as it was an excellent example for what research into the wider
area of “fraternalism” might disclose.
The last paper, by Jimmy Koppen, continued the Low Countries emphasis by undertaking an examination of the Masonic network surrounding the Royal Flemish Theatre in Brussels from 1875. A persuasive case was argued for viewing the creation of the theatre as a political action of the Brusssels’ freemasons.
The early evening session commenced with a lecture by Dr. J.K. Birksted on Le Corbusier, the Parisian avant-garde and freemasonry. Dr. Birksted considered the Masonic milieu of Le Corbusier’s childhood hometown, before briefly discussing the eighteenth-century Masonic concepts of vision and their influence on the artist. In our opinion, this fascinating topic was worthy of greater elaboration. The last lecture of the day, presented by Diane Clements, analysed Victorian illustrations of freemasonry. Drawing on a variety of sources, the speaker skilfully revealed how illustrations depicting masons were redolent of the historical and cultural context in which they were produced.
The second day of the conference focussed on the theme of Freemasonry: the written word, art and music. After opening addresses from Dr. Wim Hofstee, of
The University of Leiden, and Dr. Andreas Önnerfors of our own CRFF, the day began with a keynote address by Professor Natalie Bayer. As a historian of Russia, I must confess that I was particularly looking forward to this lecture. Fortunately, I was not let down as Professor Bayer elucidated the Masonic influences on the emergence of a national Russian literary movement with clarity and eloquence. The second lecture of the morning, by Dr. David Bjelajac, propounded a Masonic and alchemical interpretation of John Singleton Copley’s painting entitled Watson and the Shark. Whilst unfortunately not being able to prove that the artist himself was a freemason, the speaker interpreted many aspects of the painting in light of Masonic symbolism. The concluding lecture of the morning session, by Max de Haan, drew attention to the important role played by friendly societies in Dutch life over the past two hundred years.
Our own Dr. Önnerfors began proceedings in the afternoon with a keynote speech entitled The Power of the Un-outspoken: Do we really understand Performance? This extremely stimulating and thought-provoking lecture argued that the re-performance/ re-enactment of Masonic rituals can play an important methodological role in helping historians to comprehend nuances not described on the printed page. The second lecture of the afternoon, by Dr. Giovanna Costantini, focussed on the way in which the Russian playwright, Nikolai Evreinov, invoked Masonic imagery in allusions to death and the life journey in
his play The Merry Death. This insightful paper revealed the complex nature of Evrenov’s theatrical vision, which matured in the so-called silver age of Russian literature and drama. The last lecture of the afternoon, by John Crow, assessed Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code- that fine work of early twenty-first century American fiction- in relation to Duncan’s Royal Arch ritual.
In the early evening session Andréa Kroon sought to revise common assumptions regarding George Washington’s Masonic apron. Undertaking a detailed examination of the iconography and embroidery of the apron, the speaker argued that it could have originated from China. The honour of presenting the concluding paper of the conference fell to Aimee Newell, who spoke about samplers depicting KingSolomon’s Temple present in the National Heritage Museum in Lexington, Massachusetts.
By the close of the conference the assembled audience had heard an astonishingly wide range of papers that powerfully demonstrated the significant role played by expressions of freemasonry; not only in the Craft itself, but also in society as a whole. Great credit is due to Professor Malcolm Davis for orchestrating such a well-conceived conference at the beginning of his tenure as the Chair for the Study of Freemasonry at The University of Leiden.
Alongside the international conference in Edinburgh and the annual Canonbury conference, this event highlighted the fruits that can be harvested by promoting the academic study of freemasonry.

© 2008 The University of Sheffield

Dr. Andreas Önnerfors
Director / Senior Lecturer in History
Centre for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism
34, Gell Street
Sheffield S3 7QY
United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 222 9893
Fax: +44 (0)114 222 98 94
Email: a.onnerfors@sheffield.ac.uk
Website: www.freemasonry.dept.shef.ac.uk/
Join the group "Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism"

2008. december 9., kedd

A szabadkőművesség egyetemes történeti kontextusban

A szabadkőművesség egyetemes történeti kontextusban

H. Balázs Éva munkássága és a szabadkőművesség

A magyar történettudomány egyik legjelentősebb alakja a 2006-ban, 91 éves korában elhunyt H. Balázs Éva. Pályáját középkorkutatóként kezdte, végül aztán a 18. század vizsgálata tette ki életművének nagyobbik részét. Ahogy a Korall című folyóirat körkérdésére írt válaszában szerepel: "1949-ben, mint a Történettudományi Intézet kutatóját „fölrendeltek” a 18. századba, mi több, az egyetemi tankönyv számára meg kellett írnom II. József korát."

Szakterületének nemzetközi hírű tekintélye lett, "Berzeviczy Gergely, a reformpolitikus" című monográfia (1967), valamint "Bécs és Pest-Buda a régi századvégen" (1987) címmel megjelent művei alapvetőek a korszak megismerésében. Ez utóbbi 1997-ben angolul, 2004-ben japánul is megjelent.

A tudományos közvélemény szerint az egyik legjobban író történész volt; könyveit, tankönyveit olvasni irodalmi élmény a szaktudományos ismeretek szerzése mellett. Ez nem csoda, hiszen író szülők (Balázs Sándor és Beczássy Judit) és rokonok (Kuncz Aladár, Cs. Szabó László), s az egész Nyugat örökségét vitte tovább. Számára Móricz és Osvát csak Zsiga bácsi és Ernő bácsi voltak.

1993-ban az elsők között vehette át a kiemelkedő tudományos életmű elismerésére az MTA által alapított "Eötvös József Koszorú"-t, 1997. július 17-én kapta meg a külföldieknek oly ritkán adományozott francia Becsületrend lovagja kitüntetést.

H. Balázs Éva munkásságának méltatására már életében több emlékkötet is megjelent, az egyik 70., egy másik 80. születésnapjára, amelyet a pályatársak és tanítványok azon cikkeiből állítottak össze, amelyeket az ő biztatására, kutatásainak folytatásaiként írtak. Kilencvenedik születésnapjára saját legfontosabbnak tartott tanulmányainak összegyűjtött kötete jelent meg Életek és korok címmel. De talán a legméltóbb örömet neki a Sic itur ad astra, a fiatal történészek folyóirata 12. évfolyamának 4. száma (2000) szerzett, amelynek alcíme "H. Balázs Éva professzor tiszteletére" volt.

Halála után néhány hónappal „A felvilágosodás jegyében” címmel rendeztek tudományos emlékülést H. Balázs Éva méltatására.

Mészáros Katalin egyórás portréfilmmel emlékezett meg az elhunyt professzorról.

A Nava archívumában hat tv műsorban és rádióprogramban hallható H. Balázs Éva, aki szívesen közreműködött az általa fontosnak tartott témák feldolgozásában. (Nava - H. Balázs Éva)

Sajnos sohasem találkoztam H. Balázs Évával, de kollégái és tanítványai sokszor adtak hangot egyénisége és kutatói ars poetikája előtti tiszteletüknek. Egy ilyenből idézek a következőkben:

"A következõ fordulatot pályámon az jelentette, hogy az 1953/54. évfolyamon
szemináriumi vezetõ tanárunk magyar történelembõl H. Balázs Éva professzor
asszony (akkor talán docens) lett. Én szemináriumi csoportvezetõ voltam, s az elsõ
szemináriumi foglalkozáson, kb. 30 percnyi várakozás után elengedtem a csoportot,
mert H. Balázs Éva nem jött. Mint utóbb kiderült, az új épületben (ezen a nyáron
költözött az egyetem két bölcsészkara a piarista gimnázium épületébe) rossz
szobaszámot kapott a tanulmányi osztálytól, s mire elérhette volna a szemináriumi
szobát, ahol vártunk rá, már elmentünk. A következõ alkalommal felelõsségre
vont, hogy miért engedélyeztem a csoportnak a távozást, s azt is megkérdezte, miért
piszkos a nyakam. Az elsõ kérdésre azt válaszoltam, a várakozási idõ 15 perc, mi
30 percig vártunk. A másik kérdéssel kapcsolatban pedig azt mondtam, hogy errõl,
ha megengedi, a szünetben négyszemközt szeretnék beszámolni. Így is történt.
Elmondtam, hogy tekintettel édesanyám alacsony jövedelmére, én a 453 Ft ösztöndíjamat
(ez éppen annyi volt, hogy fedezte az egyetemi menzán a reggelit, ebédet,
vacsorát – ne feledjük, akkor a kötelezõ óraszám heti 36 vagy 38 volt, tehát estig az
egyetemen voltunk) teljes egészében haza adom. Hogy megéljünk, kétszer egy héten
éjszaka a józsefvárosi teherpályaudvaron rakodómunkát vállalok, többnyire
szénlapátolást. A munka után, reggel 6-kor ott nem tudok rendesen megmosakodni,
így a mosdást az egyetemen a férfi WC-ben fejezem be, de itt sem mindig teljes
sikerrel. H. Balázs Éva ekkor azt mondta, hogy megpróbál számomra másfajta munkát
szerezni, és a szavát be is tartotta."

(Gunst Péter)

S most beszéljünk a szabadkőművességgel kapcsolatos munkásságáról.

H. Balázs Éva nem önmagában a szabadkőművességet kutatta, hanem felismerte, hogy a szabadkőműveseknek a történelemben, a felvilágosodásban játszott szerepének megismerése nélkül hiányosak lesznek történelmi kutatásai. Ahogyan méltatói mondják, Magyarország történetét elsősorban egyetemes történeti kontextusban vizsgálta, ugyanúgy elmondható, hogy a szabadkőművességet is ehhez az egyetemes történeti kontextus megértése és leírása érdekében tanulmányozta.

H. Balázs Évának kevés olyan munkája van, amelyik konkrétan a szabadkőművességgel foglalkozik, viszont szinte mindegyik könyvében, tanulmányában előkerül az érvrendszer, a bizonyító apparátus részeként a szabadkőművesség története, szerepe.

Legyen erre most egy példa az "Európai gazdaságpolitika – magyar válasz" című könyvének vitájából egy mozzanat:

"A protestáns bankárok gyors léptekkel elhagyták Franciaországot, az értelmiség tekintélyes része szintén. De nem ez volt a legnagyobb baj. Jöttek a svájci bankárok, és az értelmiség utánpótlása még akkor is biztosítva volt, ha ezerszámra távozott Hollandiába, ment Angliába. A francia protestánsok nagyon mozgékonyak voltak. (Megemlíteném Desaguliers urat. Ez a francia hugenotta hamar talált angol partnereket, és ő volt az, aki megalapította az angol szabadkőműves nagypáholyt. Ezt – sajátos módon – a szakirodalom nem nagyon szokta emlegetni.) "

(H. BALÁZS ÉVA: Európai gazdaságpolitika – magyar válasz)

A Világosságban 1977-ben jelent meg a Szabadkőművesség a XVIII. században című tanulmánya, amelyet a 2005-ös Életek és korok című kötetében újraközölt.

Ahogy önmagáról írta: "Egy mályuszista csak levéltári munkával képzelheti el feladata megoldását ...", s amikor Berzeviczy Gergelyről írott monográfiája forrásait kutatta, felfedezte a Festeticsek dégi levéltárából megmaradt iratanyagok másolatait az Országos Levéltárban. (Azokat, amelyeket Abafi Lajos lemásoltatott, s amelyek eredetije eltűnt, feltehetőleg megsemmisült.) Ezeknek az iratoknak a kutatását kritikai kiadással akarta lezárni, de ebben már megakadályozta a halál.

Ahogy az "Életek és korok" előszó-beszélgetésében mondta Krász Lillának:

"A szabadkőművesség, mint a hazai politikai gondolkodás egyik szabályozója a '70-es évek óta foglalkoztat. A dégi anyag nagy forráskiadványának több száz oldala elkészült és előbb-utóbb meg fog jelenni. Tanítványaim majd tető alá hozzák."

Reméljük, hogy tanítványai - a "kislányok" - befejezik a munkát és mihamarabb napvilágot lát.

Ezzel is kapcsolatos megjegyzése:

"Kifáradtam és kiábrándultam a szabadkőművesség 18. századi funkciójának kutatása során – remek anyagot hagyok örökül tanítványaimnak."

Érdemes talán megemlíteni, hogy Jászberényi József 2001-ben Summa cum laude megvédett PhD értekezésének egyik bírálója is H. Balázs Éva volt.


H. Balázs Éva: Hogyan lettem történész? A Korall körkérdése a pályaválasztásról 21-22 / 2005. november (http://www.epa.oszk.hu/00400/00414/00015/pdf/t_02balazs.pdf)









Kapcsolódó könyvek:


Kapcsolódó cikk:

2008. november 30., vasárnap

CRFF Newsletter 32

University of Sheffield

The Centre for Research into Freemasonry
Newsletter 32

Sheffield, St. Andrews Day, November 30 2008

Dear colleagues and friends,
This newsletter comes with a slight delay, as the last month has been very busy, with a number of activities taking place and various initiatives being launched. First of all I should mention that we just returned from a very successful conference, “The Expression of Freemasonry”, arranged by Professor Malcolm Davies, the newly installed chair for research into freemasonry at The University of Leiden in The Netherlands. As we have numerous other events to report on, the conference will be treated in our next newsletter in December. We are also happy to announce that Working Paper No. 4 on freemasonry and the catholic church in Costa Rica by Ricardo Martínez Esquivel finally has been published on our website.

(1) Academic Society for Research into Freemasonry and [Fraternalism/Related Currents/Civil Society]
Over the past few years discussions have taken place among scholars in the field concerning the need to establish an organisation for the advancement of academic research into freemasonry and related topics. This later broadening and opening towards a wider perspective, within which freemasonry can be contextualised, can be branded in different ways and we have not yet exactly agreed upon a final name and definition for the proposed society. However, we are proud to announce that under the working-title of “ASRFF” we have now taken steps to establish such a society. Membership is open to individuals within the academic community and will include a reduced subscription fee to Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism, the first edition of which will be published in May 2009. The draft constitution of the society and a subscription form can be downloaded from our website. At present the acting board members are : Prof. Dr. Malcolm Davies, Prof. Dr. Cécile Revauger, Dr. Henrik Bogdan and Dr. Andreas Önnerfors.

(2) Co-operation with Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis/France
Following the positive relationship between the Centre de la Méditerranée Moderne et Contemporaine, at the university of Nice/France, and the CRFF we are happy to report back about past and forthcoming events and projects.

a) A dissertation on Dutch freemasonry in French exile around the French revolution, defended on 7th November in Nice
The director of the CRFF participated in the doctoral committee for a PhD-thesis submitted by Arille Chevalier (supervised by Professor Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire) , which is entitled “L’Exil des patriots Hollandais en France et la loge maçonnique ‘Les Vrais Bataves’ (1790-1795) à l’Orient de Dunkerque”. The thesis extensively covers the topic of Dutch exile, its political and historical background, context and networks in Dunkerque around the time of the French revolution. A particular focus is placedon the dynamic development of the “Les Vrais Bataves” lodge. This most remarkable work – granted with the highest degree by an unanimous committee and hopefully prepared for subsequent publication – provides many fascinating details, among which is an account of the perfectly intact correspondence on masonic issues between local lodges in northern France and the leadership of the Grand Orient in Paris, at a time when the nation was shaken by the violent events of the revolution. Furthermore, it emerged that anti-masonic feeling during the time of the revolution can also be ascribed to the fact that it was perceived to be a representative body of the Ancien Régime. This adds a level of complexity to the fact that in various conspiracy theories freemasonry has been held responsible for the revolution. Dr. Chevalier’s thesis is an all-too rare example of a carefully carried out case study.

b) Memorandum of Understanding under Negotiation
The directors of the CMMC and the CRFF signed a reciprocal agreement to work towards the establishment of a proper Memorandum of Understanding between their centres at the universities in Sheffield and Nice. This forms part of our strategy to actively strive towards deeper academic cooperation.

c) Participation in the CITERE project (“Circulations, Territoires et Réseaux en Europe de l’âge classique aux Lumières/Communicating Europe : Early Modern Circulations, Territories and Networks)”, funded by the French National Agency for Research (ANR).
We are also pleased to announce that the ANR French research council has positively assessed an application prepared in Nice for a project on the circulation of cultures and ideas in Europe during the eighteenth-century. This project is based upon the cooperation of 43 researchers from 9 countries working in 4 teams. The project will include the production of databases, cultural-geographical analyses of cultural exchange, conferences, workshops and traditional publications. Freemasonry is one of the topics treated as an example of early modern circulation and the director of the CRFF will be participate in this sub-project, where he will focus on the use of masonic certificates and masonic periodicals in the eighteenth-century. The entire project description can be downloaded from our website under HERA, follow the link to CITERE.

d) Conference on “Diffusion and Circulation of Masonic Practices in Europe and in the Mediterranean, 1720-1820” Nice/France, 2 and 3 July 2009
As a direct result of the successful application, outlined above, an academic conference will be organised next July in Nice. The Call for papers is published on our website in French and English and can be found in the News and Events sub-section, under “Conferences”.

(3) Report from the tenth annual Canonbury Masonic Research Centre conference by Dr. Robert Collis
The tenth annual Canonbury Masonic Research Centre International Conference, which took place in London between 25th and 26th October, attracted a fascinating range of keynote speakers. The theme of this year’s conference was “Freemasonry & the Sciences: Natural & Supernatural”, and in the early morning session on Saturday the assembled audience was treated to two French perspectives. The opening paper was delivered by Dr. Roger Dachez, who outlined the intriguing links between mesmerism and Freemasonry in late eighteenth century Lyon. The second French speaker, Alain Bauer, began his talk by speaking about the complex relationship between French and English Freemasonry. He then went on to provide a French perspective on the role of Freemasonry and Newtonian science in the development of the Enlightenment during the eighteenth century.
The international flavour of the conference was continued by the third speaker, Susan Sommers from Pennsylvania, who provided a stimulating glimpse into the world of a little-known English physician, Ebenezer Sibly (1751-1799). Sibly’s career provides an excellent example of the manner in which a physician could combine Freemasonry with a complex mix of science, religion and esotericism.
The afternoon session began with a thought-provoking talk by Edi Bilimoria on scientific and esoteric perspectives of consciousness. In essence, Dr. Bilimoria argued that consciousness cannot simply be understood by relying on the laws of modern science. Thus, he championed the theosophical principles of Helena Blavatsky as a way to understand consciousness, alongside the continued embrace of modern science. John Gordon also spoke in this session about the need to elaborate a new “modern metaphysics”, in which psycho-spiritual forces and energies ought to be recognised and understood as forces that affect the whole of nature.
Sandwiched between these two speculative papers was one by the director of our centre, Andreas Önnerfors, who spoke about the images and usage of the concepts of “art” and “science” within Freemasonry during the eighteenth century. Of particular interest in this paper was his analysis of Ephraim Chambers’ Cyclopaedia of 1727, in which “art” and “science” were clearly demarcated and knowledge was presented in alphabetical order, rather than in thematic segments.
The morning session on Sunday began with a heated debate on the true philosophical foundations of Freemasonry. According to Fabio Venzi, the Grand Master of the Regular Grand Lodge of Italy, one should look to Renaissance Neo-Platonic thought when seeking the philosophical roots of Freemasonry. However, in his paper on the Lodge of the Nine Sisters, Charles Porset championed the ideals of the French Enlightenment- typified by Voltaire- when searching for the cornerstones of the Craft in France. The speaker’s panel (conducted in Italian, French and English) undoubtedly provided the most entertaining spectacle of the two-day conference, with both men passionately espousing their own diverging viewpoints.
After the drama and tension of the first two papers, James North calmly expounded his insightful thesis regarding the possibility of attaining a deeper understanding of Baconian science by studying his use of the so-called Initiative Method. This method involved inserting connected clues into written books, such as Bacon’s Instauratio Magna, in order to provide a more profound knowledge for those sufficiently skilled in decoding.
The afternoon session began with a paper by Andrew Prescott on William Rand, a seventeenth century physician. Dr. Prescott outlined a powerful case for Rand owning of the celebrated Cooke manuscript, dating from the fifteenth century, which contains some of the earliest myths associated with Freemasonry. Moreover, the speaker raised the question of how our understanding of the manuscript’s production at the Grand Lodge in London in 1721 would be affected if Rand did indeed own the Cooke manuscript in the seventeenth century?
The author Philippa Faulkes, who discussed the relationship between Freemasonry and Allesandro Cagliostro, delivered the penultimate paper. This well known eighteenth century figure was assessed in light of an alchemical tradition dating back to Hermes Trismegistus. The final paper, by Gerarld Riley, undertook an examination of the Second Degree of Craft Freemasonry, and sought to interpret it as a celebration of nature and science.
As someone experiencing the Canonbury Conference for the first time, I was generally impressed by the diversity and scope of papers presented. However, a degree of academic rigour was missing at times. The conference was admirably chaired by Andrew Prescott. Congratulations are also in order to Carole McGilvery, the event organiser, who put together such a wide-ranging and stimulating conference.

(4) A short report by Dr. Andreas Önnerfors on the “Temple legend” workshop, which took place on 1 November.
The workshop on “The Temple Legend: Links between Freemasonry, Theosophy and Anthroposophy”, organised by the Centre in Sheffield, attracted around forty participants. After a brief introduction by the Director, the first speaker, Dr. Isaac Lubelsky, treated the relationship between the Theosophical Society and the emergent Anthroposophical Society and the background behind their final split in 1913. To a certain extent this split was explained as a clash between the main representatives of the different streams, Annie Besant in England and Rudolf Steiner in Germany. Whereas Besant stressed the importance of Indian/Eastern religion, based upon the teachings of H P Blavatsky, Steiner looked into the roots of a new spirituality in the traditions of Western esotericism, such as Rosicrucianism. Dr. Andreas Önnerfors investigated the roots of the Temple legend, as described in Steiner’s lectures, and presented hitherto unknown material on the figure of Queen Sheba in Masonic tradition dating back to an oratorio performed in Dublin in 1753 and the first edition of Ahiman Rezon (1754). Other sources also exist that suggest the involvement of the queen. The French writer Nerval first fully developed a version of the temple legend in which Queen Sheba plays a significant roll. Heckethorn subsequently used this version in his seminal work Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries (1875), a German translation of which was found in Steiner’s library. Beyond the textual level Önnerfors argued that the structure of the temple legend suggests that it was written for performance and not entirely as a piece of literature. In this light it is easy to imagine Steiner’s lecture being the stepping stone upon which initiation rites were able to develop., . In his lecture, Nick Thomas, a former president of the British Anthroposophical Society, elaborated on the relationship between freemasonry and anthroposophy, especially in regard to initiation. The workshop was concluded by Dr. Helmut Zander, who analysed Steiner’s own writings in order to assess how freemasonry was transformed by anthroposophy. Furthermore, Dr. Zander suggested that the Johannesbau in Dornach (Switzerland) was built for the purpose of initiation. Unfortunately it was not possibile to arrange a panel discussion after the lectures. This was a shame as a great deal of interest was shown and there was a need to discuss the many perspectives of this topic in an open approach. A lively correspondence has ensued after the event that emphasizes the importance of creating zones for the free exchange of ideas between the strict academic treatment of these topics and other approaches. We believe this is the only way forward. The Centre looks forward to arranging or participating in similar events in the future.

(5) Various engagements undertaken by the Director
Besides other commitments, on 3 November the Director of the CRFF presented a talk on “Freemasonry and the Press in the Eighteenth century” at the meeting of St. Lawrence Lodge 2078 in Scunthorpe (see www.pgllincs.org/views.shtml). On November 14th the Director was invited to speak in Oslo at the 60th anniversary of the Board for Masonic Education and Research of the Norwegian Order of Freemasons. The topic of his lecture was “Challenges and Experiences within Masonic Research and Education in the 21st century”. On the following day he also attended the fifth anniversary of the Niels Treschow research lodge. On November 19 the Director addressed the Leeds Lodge of Installed Masters on “The Freemason’s Magazine 1793-1797: an invaluable Tool for Research into Freemasonry”.Furthermore, he spoke two days later at the Tapton Masonic Study Circle in Sheffield on “The First Degree in Swedish Freemasonry”. Conference participation in Leiden/The Hague 25-28 November will be covered in the next newsletter. Finally, the Director participated in the annual conference of the Cornerstone society in London on November 29 (see http://www.cornerstonesociety.com/).

(6) Review of the Scottish Key
Review of ”The Scottish Key” by Dorothe Sommer (shown in cooperation with the Showroom Cinema on 10th November)
After the fruitful discussion following our first film at the Showroom Cinema in Sheffield (Les Forces Occultes), we were looking forward to the screening of The Scottish Key, a documentary on the origins of freemasonry. The expert panel assembled for the discussion following the film heightened this sense of excitement. Fortunately, we benefited from the presence of Francois de Smet, the co-scriptwriter and producer of the film, who travelled from Brussels; Robert Cooper, the curator of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in Edinburgh and Andrew Prescott, the former director of the Centre, now working at the University of Lampeter. As expected, the event attracted a lot of freemasons but also a pleasingly large number of ‘ordinary mortals’.
Contrary to the suggestive title of the film, The Scottish Key does not take up a pro-Scottish, anti-English position but rather explores various theories regarding the origins of the craft, which provoke discussion and dispute up to the present day. The filmmakers interviewed a plethora of outstanding academics and masons during the course of the documentary, including John Hamill of the United Grand Lodge of England; Jessica Harland Jacobs of the University of Florida; David Stevenson, of the University of St Andrews, as well as the above-mentioned Robert Cooper and Andrew Prescott.
One of the theories brought forward in the documentary supports the claims that early operative lodges were transformed into speculative lodges over the course of time. Hence it was through this development that modern masonry came into being. Opposed to this theory are supporters of the argument that one should look for the origins of freemasonry in the medieval Order of the Knights Templar or among alchemists. The documentary elucidates all kinds of different points of view - their reasoning and all parties are granted some words. The Scottish Key is refreshingly balanced in its coverage of Freemasonry. It does not try to take sides or influence its audience but sticks quite strictly to its task as a documentary and, compared to all kinds of other so-called ‘documentaries’ on freemasonry, which purport to reveal the real truth and indulge in multitudinous conspiracy theories.
Francois de Smet, the panellist and co-scriptwriter, was born in 1977 and currently studies philosophy in Brussels. The Scottish Key is his first film and has already been screened in Belgium and France, where it attracted large audiences. However, taking into account freemasonry’s somewhat tarnished image among the English public, the inclement weather on the night and the fact that a competition event (Café Scientific) took place next door, it was gratifying to see so many people that clearly enjoyed the screening and the ensuing open forum discussion.
Robert Cooper displayed expertise on Anderson’s background, explaining that Anderson’s forefathers had already been freemasons and therefore had provided him with an upbringing in a ‘masonic’ household. At the same time, he admitted that he had not seen some material used for the film. This was the case, for example, with the excerpt from the St Mary Lodge, where records dating from 1599 were shown. Andrew Prescott explained his understanding of the constitutions, which allowed different interpretations and could be utilised by masons to discover, re-discover or even invent various traditions. Francois de Smet revealed, that many more hours of film reel had not been included in the final edit and could be ‘recycled’ for a director’s cut. More questions were raised – for example concerning the connection between music, masonry and the inclusion of songs into the constitutions- but it would take too much space to delve into every single one.
Finally, one aspect should still be mentioned: the allusion of the art of memory, which plays a traditionally important role in Masonic circles in regard to the building of Solomon’s Temple. As Prescott pointed out, the temple structure itself serves as a mnemonic symbol: its architecture and different areas can be used as pictures for whatever was to be remembered. Since oral tradition always played a significant role in masonry, the training of the mind naturally took place during lodge meetings and was also practised during the rituals. Until today English lodges still emphasise oral customs vis-à-vis the written word.
In conclusion, I would like to add that the cooperation between the Centre and the Showroom proved to be very rewarding. This was not only because of the opportunity to discuss the films with specialised panellists but also thanks to the conducive atmosphere after the events, when people intermingled at the cinema’s bar, new contacts were made and topics were further discussed.

The next series of films will start in February 2009 and take note – you will be surprised!

© 2008 The University of Sheffield

Dr. Andreas Önnerfors
Director / Senior Lecturer in History
Centre for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism
34, Gell Street
Sheffield S3 7QY
United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 222 9893
Fax: +44 (0)114 222 98 94
Email: a.onnerfors@sheffield.ac.uk
Website: www.freemasonry.dept.shef.ac.uk/
Join the group "Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism"

2008. november 16., vasárnap


A francia "comme il faut" kifejezést. ami a kifogástalan, jól nevelt viselkedést jelenti, manapság gyakran a címben szereplő fonetikus formában használják.

Már ha valaki tudja, hogy mit jelent. S ha tudja is, nem biztos, hogy alkalmazza is.

Az Internet világában - s különösen a fórumok, csetek, e-levelezések anoním közegében - sajnálatosan kevés maradt meg a kulturált kommunikáció alapformáiból. Pedig a akár a legudvariasabb formában is lehet valamiről kritikus véleményt alkotni, sőt a forma és tartalom ellentéte még inkább segítheti a kívánt hatás elérését.

A komilfó netikettnek (net-etikett) nevezett változata mára szintén kevéssé ismert és használt - mindig csak mások vonatkozásában említődik meg a viták során.

A korrekt kommunikáció egyik alapszabálya, hogy az ember bemutatkozik, amikor beszélgetést kezdeményez másokkal. Ezt a követelményt valamennyire enyhíti a kifejezetten anoním kommunikációs csatornák megjelenése, de nem oltja ki. S a netikett határozott elvárása, hogy az aniním beszélgetésekben nem használható fel a résztvevők valódi személyiségére való utalás.

Viszont ha egy beszélgető fórum egyik résztvevője egy másikhoz magánlevelet ír, akkor elvárható, hogy az aláírásában már a valódi nevét tüntesse fel. Számos ilyen levelet kaptam és írtam is, az esetek legnagyobb részében felfedve a nicknevem inkognitóját. Természetesen ennek a párja is igaz, ha valódi névvel aláírt levelet kap valaki, akkor erkölcsi kötelessége neki is a valódi nevével válaszolni.

A kivételek leggyakrabban szabadkőműves levelezőtársaimmal kapcsolatosak. Úgy vélem és ezt a gyakorlatot is követem, hogy ha egy szabadkőművesnek írok magánlevelet, akkor a nicknevemmel írom alá. Mégpedig éppen azért, hogy ne tartsa kötelességének ő is valódi nevével aláírni. Nem komilfó ugyanis kényszerhelyzetet teremteni, mások úriemberségét kihasználni.

Ennek ellenére számos szabadkőművessel - mindkét irányzatból - folyó levelezésem valódi nevünkön folyik. Ezek egy része eleve így indult - saját nevüket aláírva írtak nekem levelet, illetve néhény nicknéven folyó levélváltás után bemutatkoztak, mire én is ezt tettem. Ez így komilfó, de mondhatnánk azt is, hogy ez illik a csiszolt kőhöz.

Ezek után elképzelhető, hogy mennyire meglepődtem, amikor egy szabadkőműves magánlevélben álnéven vitatkozva velem, velem kapcsolatos személyes információkat használt dehonesztáló formában. Azt hiszem ez sem a netikettnek, sem az etikettnek, sem a szabadkőműves erkölcsiségnek nem felel meg.

Ezen felháborodva saját nevemet aláírva válaszoltam az illetőnek, feltételezve, hogy erre már ő is aláírja a magáét és így egyenlő feltételek mellett folytathatjuk vitánkat.

Mivel ez nem történt meg, megszakítottam vele a kapcsolatot.

Kíváncsi vagyok arra, hogy mások komilfónak tartják-e az én elképzeléseimet a "comme il faut"-ról.

2008. november 1., szombat

CRFF Newsletter 31

University of Sheffield

The Centre for Research into Freemasonry
Newsletter 31
No. 31: OCTOBER 2008
October 29, Sheffield
Dear colleagues, dear friends!
This newsletter is an experiment as it is the first one to be sent out in html-format. We know that there are Email-applications that not will display the intended format correctly and we apologise for this. In case this happens, we would need your feedback.
1) Lecture Series
Our series of public lectures will continue until the next newsletter is issued with two lectures:
13th November: Ugur Ungor
University of Sheffield:
“When Armenians built Auschwitz: Notes on late Ottoman Freemasonry and Genocide”
27th November: Mangol Bayat
Independent Scholar, PhD UCLA
“The Grand Orient de France and the Constitutional Revolution in Iran, 1906 – 1911”
All lectures will take place in the HRI/CRFF building at 34 Gell Street in S3 7QY Sheffield every second Monday starting on October 2 at 17.15 followed by questions and refreshments.
2) Film Series • The Scottish Key, British Premiere November 10
Our film series will continue with the screening of the documentary “The Scottish Key”. We are happy to inform that we have prof Andrew Prescott and the producer François de Smet as well as Robert Cooper, curator of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, as confirmed participants on the panel following the screening.
The Scottish Key, An Investigation into the Origins of Freemasonry:
An enigmatic and mysterious topic, subject to allegations and fantasies of all sorts. Spread across the globe, this discrete and mysterious association has been a source of curiosity, fascination and suspicion for over 300 years. Today Freemasonry gathers several millions of people throughout the world. Protected from the outside world, from which they isolate themselves for the length of an evening, freemasons meet in lodges and there develop a peculiar spirituality. How was this movement born? Are its origins veiled in secrecy? Even amidst its own members, few know the actual beginnings of Freemasonry. The lodges themselves have forgotten from whence they came. For the first time, based on the most recent findings, a critical documentary investigates the question of the origins of Freemasonry. What are its links with the Knights Templar? Are they the descendants of stone masons from the Middle Ages? How did the first lodges come to be? Take an esoteric road of unsolved mysteries, starting in England in the 18th century. Discover the events that led to the creation of the Grand Lodge of London in 1717. Ascertain the true ambitions of the men who launched this incredible adventure, and how the most intriguing fraternal society of modern times was born. Explore the centuries old stone mason lodges and their ties to the birth of Freemasonry in London. See how these men were inspired by their secular rites such as the mason’s word and the art of memory. Find out the roots of Freemasonry in Scotland, and the real influence of the Middle Ages.
A report on the screening and discussion of “Forces Occultes” follows below. Worth mentioning is also that the film series generated press coverage in local and national UK press. The Times Higher Education (circulation 20 000) inserted an article titled “Fraternal Forces”, The Yorkshire Post (circulation 50 000) with the title “Freemason films are food for thought” and the Sheffield Telegraph (similar circulation) with “University presents rare insight into freemasonry”.
3) Journal for Research into Freemasonry & Fraternalism: Reminder of Deadline November 15
Please visit the website www.equinoxjournals.com/ojs/index.php/JRFF for more information about submissions.
4) CRFF newsletter survey: analysis
Results and Web presence
We want to thank those of you who have replied to our survey on the newsletter. This helps us to develop it further. All together, we received 63 replies. Based upon the survey we have decided to go forward with the development of the format. As far as dissemination is concerned, the survey suggests that our newsletter (around 1700 subscribers in total) seems to reach at least another 8 000 recipients through forwarding and posting on various websites and blogs. We encourage you to continue so and to spread the newsletter through all available channels! Another strategy during the last month has been to raise our web-presence. The centre runs a Facebook-group, has now a flickr-account and an entry in Wikipedia. We are also happy to announce that we have created an own blog, accessible under crffsheffield.blogspot.com/
The majority are “old subscribers”, being on the list for more than 12 months.
50% are satisfied and 40 % very satisfied with the content.
50% never forward the newsletter; the other half does so occasionally (27%) or regularly (22%).
Second impact
If forwarded, the newsletter mostly reaches up to another 10 recipients (77%), up to 50 recipients (17%) or even more than 100 recipients (7%).
Publication on websites/blogs
Around 10% publish the newsletter occasionally or regularly on their websites/blogs.
The majority of theses sites have reach out to more than 200 people.
A clear majority of 70% stated they were able to receive a newsletter in html-format. Many stated that the format was less important than the content and suggested that the newsletter should be issued in different formats (plain text Email, pdf, html).
5) Conference participation
The Director CRFF has participated in a number of events during the last month. During October, Dr. Önnerfors participated with a paper at the annual conference of the German Society for Eighteenth Century Studies in Bonn/Germany and in a large international congress “The practice of knowledge and the figure of the savant in the 18th century” in Bern/Switzerland with a paper entitled “Geheime Gelehrte, Gelehrtes Geheimnis: zum Verhältnis zwischen gelehrter Kultur und Freimaurerei im 18. Jahrhundert“. The paper was very well received by leading 18th century scholars. At the annual CMMC conference, Dr. Önnerfors presented a paper on “The Concept of Science in the Imagination of European Freemasonry”. A report of the CMMC event will be published in the next issue of the newsletter.
During November, the CRFF will be represented at the large conference “The Expression of Freemasonry: its oratory, poetry, music, literature, art and architecture.” in The Hague/The Netherlands. Dr. Önnerfors will present a keynote lecture entitled. “The Power of the Un-outspoken: do we really understand Performance?”. More information on this event is to be found on www.ovnnews.blogspot.com/ For registration, please contact f.m.conference.leiden08@gmail.com
6) News from the Masonic world
• John Wade, who has been associated with the Sheffield centre for a long time, will undergo his Viva Voce later this year. He has been appointed UGLE Prestonian lecturer for 2009 on the topic “Go thou and do likewise: English Masonic Processions from the 18th to the 20th Centuries”. Parts of the research in preparation for this lecture will be carried out at the centre.
• 2008 Cornerstone Society Conference
The Cornerstone Society is pleased to announce preliminary details of its 2008 Conference, "Quest for the Lost Word", which will be held at Freemasons’ Hall, London on Saturday 29th November, with registration starting at 12.45 pm. The Speakers will be: Professor John Grange, “With the Centre”; Professor Thierry Zarcone (CNRS, Paris), “Muslim Fascination with Freemasonry: Historic and Ritualistic Perspectives”; Miss Pauline Chakmakjian (University of Wales, Lampeter), "Japanese Spirituality and Esoteric Freemasonry"; Dr Henrik Bogdan (Gothenburg University) “The Quest for the Lost Word” and Tom Bergroth (Grand Marshall of the Swedish Order) “The Swedish Rite”. Tickets are £16.50 per person for the Conference only (with light refreshments).
You can book securely on line by following this link. Alternatively, fill in this form on your computer, print it off and send it with your payment and a stamped addressed envelope to the address below.
For further information, email secretary@cornerstonesociety.com or write to Mark St John Qualter, Secretary, The Cornerstone Society, 13 Victoria Road, Lytham St Annes, Lancashire FY8 1LE, enclosing a SAE. Cheques made payable please to “The Cornerstone Society”.
7) Report on the screening of Forces Occultes Monday 13th October 2008 by Michael R. Taylor, MA-student
In conjunction with The Showroom Cinema in Sheffield the Centre held the first ever UK screening of a sub-titled version of the anti-masonic French film ‘Forces Occultes’.
Shot in 1942, the film was first shown in Paris in the spring of 1943 and it is reputed to have played to a very wide audience. It tells the story of Pierre Avenel, a member of parliament or ‘Chambre de Députés’ who comes to the attention of a small group of Freemasons who are also MP’s and who recruit him into their Lodge. From the very beginning the film is at pains to make sure that the audience is aware of the ‘authenticity’ of the scenes which they are about to witness. Before any of the action takes place we are informed that opening scene was filmed in the Chambre de Députés itself and the makers of the film even went to the lengths of engaging actors who resembled well-known politicians of the 1930’s in France. Avenel’s initiation into the Lodge is shown in great detail and with, we are told at the end, great fidelity to the text of the ceremony being depicted and thus the blurring of fact and fiction in the mind of the audience is reinforced by the director.
Avenel quickly finds himself approached by members of the Lodge who want to take advantage of his position as a member of parliament to extract little favours. These men are portrayed as greedy, venal and corrupt; using membership of the lodge as a way of gaining favours from men well placed to help them and abusing the oath sworn by the newly made brother to their own advantage. And of course a good many of them are stereotypically represented as being Jewish.
All the misgivings expressed by Avenel’s wife at the outset of his journey into the world of Freemasons are seen to be well founded and Avenel finds himself at odds with the Worshipful Master of his own Lodge over a vote to be taken in parliament; all this after we have been shown the extent of the corrupt influence of MP’s who manipulate the membership of a committee of inquiry in order to further their own nefarious ends. For it is made clear to the audience that freemasonry is working to its own agenda and that its power and influence are not confined to a few elected parliamentarians but that it can use them control the press, the armed forces and even the aviation industry.
Eventually, Avenel having decided to resign from the Lodge, an attempt on his life is made at the instigation of one his own brethren. He somehow survives the assault and is restored to life and sanity by his loving wife who remains at his side as his strength and comfort in time of need.
The underlying message of this propaganda film that is fiction masquerading as documentary fact is that all of this is in vain since the Masons achieve their goal by bringing about the war against Nazi-Germany which but for them would never have occurred. The worldwide Judeo-masonic conspiracy is shown to be truly as evil as anyone ever imagined it to be the suppression of the brotherhood and extermination of the Jews is wholly justified.
The film was introduced to the audience by Dr. Andreas Önnerfors, director of the Centre for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism. Following the showing there was a discussion led a panel of academic staff from the University of Sheffield (Dean of Faculty of Arts & Humanities, prof Phil Powrie, prof Tim Baycroft, PhD-student Jen Ferrar) which allowed many aspects of the film, its history and context within the period of the Nazi occupation and Vichy government as well as the quality of the film itself and the role of the producer, the director and the script writer to be examined by the audience.
This innovative event was well attended and clearly appreciated by the members of the audience who were not drawn only from within freemasonry itself but a from a variety of backgrounds and across a broad age range; which bodes well for the success of the next film to be screened at the Showroom, “The Scottish Key” which is to shown on Monday 10th of November at 6:30 pm.
8) New Working Paper
We are about to publish our Working Paper No. 4 by PhD-student Ricardo Martinez Esquivel entitled Masonic Societies of Ideas and their Social Representations in Costa Rica (1865-1899). Please look out on our website.

© 2008 The University of Sheffield

Dr. Andreas Önnerfors
Director / Senior Lecturer in History
Centre for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism
34, Gell Street
Sheffield S3 7QY
United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 (0)114 222 9893
Fax: +44 (0)114 222 98 94
Email: a.onnerfors@sheffield.ac.uk
Website: www.freemasonry.dept.shef.ac.uk/
Join the group "Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism"

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